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Blog entry by Ali Haider Shalwani

Data Science Roadmap - A Comprehensive Career Guide

Data Science Roadmap - A Comprehensive Career Guide

This blog post will provide you with a comprehensive data science roadmap that can aid your learning, helping you succeed in a world loaded with data.

As of 2020, the average salary that a data

scientist makes in the US is 
over

$113,000
. With that stated, it can be affirmed

that data scientists are high in demand. You can think of data science as a way

to earn money but then you will never have the actual motivation to learn it.

Instead, you should identify a problem; be it a marketing-related problem or a

research problem, and then start learning data science & its tools

accordingly, because you cannot excel at every tool or a data science skillset. 

First & foremost, you need to motivate yourself to

love the data, with no drive you will probably leave your learning journey at

some point. Moving on, you need to practically work on real projects. Just

acquiring the fundamental skills won’t make you an expert, likewise, to

increase your expertise, it is significant for you to increase the level of

difficulty every time you undertake a data science project. While being at work

or internship, learn from your peers & subordinates, check how they are

executing the data science projects. Last but not the least, present your

insights & analysis to others.  

But you might be wondering what skills do you exactly

require for being a successful data scientist & how, to begin with, those?

What steps do you need to follow to take a leap into the field of data

science?  

Before we get started with the actual data science roadmap, which of the following expertise/skills do you have/possess within the domain of data science?


Since now you have a know-how of what skills you

already possess, the below data science roadmap can help you understand where

you do stand & what extent of efforts are needed for you to reach the

endpoint. 

Image showing a standard roadmap for data scientists, including valuable resources.

Step 1: Getting Started 

Before you move on to learning & adapting to new

skills, it is important for you to understand what data science is & if you

are a great fit for data science or not.

This article by innoarchitech precisely explains what data science is, it further enlightens on the roles of data scientists, data engineers, and data analysts that can surely help you in deciding which boat to jump in.  

To further assess, check what type of data scientist you are with the below short quiz: 

Step 2: Learn the basics of mathematics & statistics  

The next checkpoint in the data science roadmap is to learn the fundamentals of mathematics & statistics. These topics should be your area of focus: 

  1. Descriptive Statistics 
  2. Probability  
  3. Inferential Statistics  
  4. Linear Algebra 
  5. Structured Thinking  

This cheat sheet by MIT can help you build your concepts for

statistics & likewise here is another 
cheat sheet by Wzchen that can help you with understanding the basics of probability.  

You can further enrich your concepts with these 5 free statistics books, along with these epic resources to learn math for data science. If you are wondering why math is needed, then you need to do a quick browse at this blog post by Dave Langer from Data Science Dojo that explains why math is important in data science.  

Step 3: Acquainting the Key Tools for Data Science 

1. Python: It is one of the most popular

& widely used programming languages. Learning this language can help you

with creating web applications, handling big data, rapid prototyping, and much

more. To know more about python, check this 
introductory

blog post
 for

it.  

Learn all the fundamentals of Python for Data Science with our upcoming training! 

2. R: Another popular language for programming in R. It provides a free software environment for statistical computing. These few blog posts can definitely add value to your knowledge of R programming:  

  1. Logistics Regression in R  
  2. R language programming for Excel Users 
  3. Natural language Processing with R programming books

You might be stuck with the same traditional argument between R Versus Python; if you are wondering which one of them you should opt for, then I did suggest you begin with R and transition to Python gradually. Then use them as per the needs of your organization.   

3. Data Exploration & Visualization: If

you are into the analytical side of the data i.e. data analysis then you must

learn data exploration & visualization. Data exploration being the initial

step of data analysis, while, data visualization is the graphical

representation of data itself. Both 
Python & R can

be used for exploring & visualizing the data.

Step 4: Learning the Key Tools for ML 

There exist some basic and advanced machine learning

tools that you need to learn & adapt yourself with. We have listed down

some of the most important ones below. These skills can be of immense value in your overall data science roadmap:  
 

  1. Exploratory Data Analysis & Data Cleaning: Before moving on to the ML tools, it is important for you to be well versed with what EDA & data cleaning is. EDA, commonly known as exploratory data analysis, is a way of studying the datasets to summarize them into a visual format. While, data cleaning is a process of detecting & correcting errors, and ensuring that the data is free of errors.

     The below cheat sheet & the article here can help you get started with EDA now.


 2. Feature Selection & Engineering: This should typically be your next step in learning ML. This typically uses domain knowledge to obtain the features from the data, which in turn helps with improving the performance of ML algorithms. So, if you are willing to expertise in the ML domain, you need to learn about feature selection & engineering.

3.  Model Selection:

Out of all the statistical models, you will need to select one model that is

well-suited for your problem. These are some of the statistical models that you

can go with:

A. Linear

Regression:
It is an algorithm of supervised machine learning, where the slope

is constant & the predicted output is continuous. To get started with

linear regression, check out this 
comprehensive

cheat sheet by MIT

B. Logistic

Regression:
It is an algorithm for supervised learning classification that is

used to predict the probability of a target variable. It is typically used for

classification purposes. 
This article can be a great resource for you to get started

with logistic regression in R. 

C. Decision

Trees:
These generally uses a decision tree to form assumptions &

conclusions about the target values. It is one of the most common approaches of

predictive modeling used in statistics & machine learning. 

To build your understanding of a decision tree,

this 
comprehensive tutorial can be a great help to you. 

D. K-Nearest

Neighbor (KNN): It is one of the simple supervised machine learning algorithms

that can help with resolving regression & classification problems. It is

quite easy to comprehend and learn. But have a few 
drawbacks 

E. K-Means:This is an unsupervised learning algorithm that units the unlabelled sets into

diverse clusters. Where K represents the numeral of the centroid. 
This cheat sheet from Stanford university can help you with learning about

K-Means.

F. Naïve Bayes:It is one of the algorithms for supervised learning that helps in solving classification problems. It is

considered one of the most successful algorithms
because of its nature to create fast

ML models can help with making predictions. 
Here you can find more about Naïve

Bayes. 

G. Dimensionality

Reduction:
A process of transforming the high-dimension space to a

low-dimension space to maintain the meaningful properties of data. 

Learning dimensionality reduction is an important skill that every data scientist must possess. Break the curse of dimensionality with Python

H. Random Forests: It is an ensemble learning method for

classification, regression, and other task purposes. It includes drawing

multiple decision trees at a time & outputting the class that is the mode

of all. Dive deep with this 
amazing guide by Berkley University

I. Gradient

Boosting Machines:
One of the most leading techniques to build predictive

models. It helps to deal with regression & classification problems and

creates a prediction model in the form of an ensemble of the weak prediction

models. 

This guide can help you get started with Gradient Boosting

Machines. 
 

J. XGBOOST: This tool specifically helps with executing

the gradient boosted decision trees devised for speed and performance. 

Find answers to what is XGBOOST, how to build an intuition

for it, and much more with the 
guide here

K. Support Vector Machines: These are supervised learning

models that are coupled with associated learning, they aid in evaluating the

data for regression & classification analysis.  

The below graphic by Avik

Jain
 can

be a great help for you to get started with SVMs: 

4.  Model Evaluation: Moving towards the last step of machine learning, model evaluation, it generalizes the accuracy of the model based on the future data. It typically uses two methods, holdout &

cross-validation.


Step 5: Profile Building 

Building a profile on GitHub is an important task that every data scientist must complete. It is one of the most effective ways for a data scientist to gather all the codes of the projects that he or she has undertaken. It not only showcases your codes and projects undertaken but also shows how long you have been practicing data science.  

To get started check this cheat sheet on GitHub

Moving on, it is also significant for you to be part of some discussion forums. These will help you find an answer to the questions you are stuck at. Here are some of the discussion forums you can be part of: 

  1. Quora  
  2. Stackoverflow 
To gain more knowledge in the data science domain, start following different YouTube channels.   
Our YouTube channel can surely be a good start for you.  

Step 6: Prepare for Data Science Interview  

You need to know all those key data science concepts that can help you ace your interviews. With these 101 Data Science Interview Questions. Answers, and Key Concepts you can prep up yourself for the interviews. 

Step 7: Take A Look at Typical Data Scientist’s Job 

Reaching the end of your data science roadmap, you might want to get an idea of a typical data scientist’s job. It is always helpful to look at some job descriptions, showcase your skills, and stand out as the best candidate. If you think you are a good fit for it, you must get started right away!

Before I end this post, let me repeat it again, instead of trying to learn all the skills required to be a data scientist endlessly, pick up a problem that inspires you or bees relevant to your domain. Try to solve that problem using the data science skills, only pick up the skills necessary to solve that problem. As you solve more problems, you will learn more skills along the way.

If you hated probability in high school or university, it is because every example of probability has to do with coin tosses and dice. But if you happen to come across interesting problems, such as the Birthday Paradox, you might have ended up loving probability.

Additional Support  

Want to learn more about data science roadmap? The following blog posts have been a great support to me, and likewise, I believe it can be a great help to you as well: 

So, what have you decided? Are planning to get started with Data Science? Take a look at our Data Science Bootcamp, a great way to start your data science journey.


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